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Volume 113 (6), 2021, Pages 3989-4003

Deep phylo-taxono genomics reveals Xylella as a variant lineage of plant associated Xanthomonas and supports their taxonomic reunification along with Stenotrophomonas and Pseudoxanthomonas

Kanika Bansal1, Sanjeet Kumar1, Amandeep Kaur, Anu Singh, Prabhu B.Patil

Bacterial Genomics and Evolution Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India.


Genus Xanthomonas is a group of phytopathogens that is phylogenetically related to XylellaStenotrophomonas, and Pseudoxanthomonas, having diverse lifestyles. Xylella is a lethal plant pathogen with a highly reduced genome, atypical GC content and is taxonomically related to these three genera. Deep phylo-taxono genomics reveals that Xylella is a variant Xanthomonas lineage that is sandwiched between Xanthomonas clades. Comparative studies suggest the role of unique pigment and exopolysaccharide gene clusters in the emergence of Xanthomonas and Xylella clades. Pan-genome analysis identified a set of unique genes associated with sub-lineages representing plant-associated Xanthomonas clade and nosocomial origin Stenotrophomonas clade. Overall, our study reveals the importance of reconciling classical phenotypic data and genomic findings in reconstituting the taxonomic status of these four genera.

Keywords Xanthomonadaceae, Lysobacteraceae, Xanthomonas-like species, Phylogenomics, Taxonogenomics, Core genome, Recombination, Xanthan gum, Xanthomonadin pigment.

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