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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
Vol. 202, 2016, Pages: 38–52

Diving physiology of seabirds and marine mammals: Relevance, challenges and some solutions for field studies ?

Caitlin B. Pointer, Andis Klegeris

Department of Biology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, Canada.

Abstract

Cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid found primarily in the inner mitochondrial membrane, has many well-defined roles within the peripheral tissues, including the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane fluidity and the regulation of mitochondrial functions. Within the central nervous system (CNS), cardiolipin is found within both neuronal and non-neuronal glial cells, where it regulates metabolic processes, supports mitochondrial functions, and promotes brain cell viability. Furthermore, cardiolipin has been shown to act as an elimination signal and participate in programmed cell death by apoptosis of both neurons and glia. Since cardiolipin is associated with regulating brain homeostasis, the modification of its structure, or even a decrease in the overall levels of cardiolipin, can result in mitochondrial dysfunction, which is a characteristic feature of many diseases. In this review, we outline the various functions of cardiolipin within the cells of the CNS, including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. In addition, we discuss the role cardiolipin may play in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, as well as traumatic brain injury.

Keywords: Alzheimerís disease,Glia, Mitochondria, Neurons, Parkinsonís disease, Traumatic brain injury.

 
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