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Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports

Vectors and vector-borne pathogens of dogs in Nigeria: a meta-analysis of their prevalence and distribution from data published between 1975 and 2016

Solomon Ngutor Karshima

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Jos, PMB 2084, Jos, Nigeria.


Knowledge of vectors and the pathogens they transmit is essential for veterinarians and public health workers to ensure successful diagnosis, treatment and public health protection. In the present study, the guideline for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) was employed to determine the prevalence and distribution of vectors and vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) of dogs across Nigeria in a meta-analysis of data published between 1975 and 2016. Pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) was determined by the random-effects model while heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q-test. A total of 2897 cases of vectors and VBPs were reported from 9880 dogs in 28 studies across 15 Nigerian states. Overall PPE was 29.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 30.2) and ranged between 4.4% (95% CI: 2.3, 7.6) and 59.1% (95% CI: 55.7, 62.5) across sub-groups. Rhipicephalus sanquineus (Prev: 25.3%, 95% CI: 23.7, 27.0) and Hepatozoon canis (Prev: 16.9%, 95% CI: 13.9, 20.3) were the most prevalent vector and VBP respectively. Vectors and VBPs of zoonotic and veterinary importance were prevalent in Nigerian dogs and were distributed across the six regions. Vector control, adequate hygiene and sanitation as well as appropriate policies on pet ownership and implementation of control measures will help control these pathogens and curtail the risk of transmission to humans in Nigeria.

Keywords: Distribution, Nigerian dogs, Prevalence, Vectors, Vector-borne pathogens.

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