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Waste Management
Volume 148, 2022, Pages 83-97

Recognition on characteristics and applicability of typical modes for manure & sewage management in pig farming: A case study in Hebei, China

Boyang Shia,b, Shu Wanga,c, Jian Jiaoa,d

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.


Scale-up intensive pig farming can increase profitability by economies of large scale, but it also exacerbates environmental pollution caused by the disordered discharge of manure and sewage. Manure & sewage management (MSM) is critical to mitigate environmental pressure and reuse livestock waste. However, the corresponding MSM measures adopted by pig farmers are multitudinous in reality, due to the diversity of MSM methods and heterogeneity of farmers' characteristics and behaviors. Thus, this study empirically categorized five typical MSM modes (i.e., traditional simple mode (TSM), mixed processing mode (MPM), semi-biogas mode (SBM), professional processing with simple utilization mode (PPSUM) and professional processing with full utilization mode (PPFUM)) by clustering analysis, based on the field data from 406 pig farms, and further discriminated farmers’ heterogeneous characteristics on corresponding mode adoption. Results revealed that each mode was distinctive. The applicability of the corresponding mode was reflected in the synthesis deliberation, involving farming structure, land, farmers’ characteristic and their subjective awareness. Farmers’ education level and pro-environmental perception are significantly promoted to adopt technology-intensive MSM modes. Scale upgrading has a positive effect on mechanization adoption and diversified strategies application. Land as an unalterable objective factor restricted the extension of MSM modes based on field returning. Conclusions clarified typical MSM modes and provided references to individual pig farms on appropriate mode selection, further enhancing the efficiency of MSM and contributing to the sustainability of green development of pig farming in China.

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