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International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Vol. 88, 2016, Pages: 527–541

Microbial production of four biodegradable siderophores under submerged fermentation

Ahmed E. Fazary, Ayed S. Al-Shihri, Mohammad Y. Alfaifi, Kamel A Saleh, Mohammed A. Alshehri, Serag Eldin I. Elbehairi, Yi-Hsu Ju

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 9004, Saudi Arabia.


Four siderophore analogues were isolated and purified from Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. ST13, and Streptomyces pilosus microorganisms under some specific submerged fermentation conditions. In order to evaluate the highest production of this siderophore analogues through the growth, a rapid spectrophotometric screening semi-quantitative method was used, in which interestingly the analogues were isolated in its own form not its iron chelate. After chromatographic separation, the chemical structures of the isolated and purified siderophores were illustrated using detailed spectroscopic techniques. The biodegradation studies were done on that four novel isolated and purified siderophores following OECD protocols. In addition, the bioactivities of these siderophores and their iron complexes were examined and evaluated.

Graphical abstract


Keywords: Siderophores; Isolation; Purification; Microorganisms; Biodegradation; Bioactivities.

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