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International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Volume 201, 2022, Pages 480-491

Immunomodulation effect of polysaccharides from liquid fermentation of Monascus purpureus 40269 via membrane TLR-4 to activate the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways

Liuming Xiea,b, Zhibing Huanga,b, Hui Menga,b, Xiaoyi Shia,b, Jianhua Xiea

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047, China.

Abstract

A polysaccharide (EMP) was prepared from Monascus purpureus 40,269 through liquid fermentation, and its immunoregulatory effect was investigated to find clues regarding its potential applicability. Structural characterization demonstrated that EMP, with a molecular weight of 83.1 kDa, consists of Xyl, Man, Gal, Ara, Rha, Glc, GalA, and GlcA at a molar ratio of 2.6: 22: 35.1: 7: 1: 29.2: 2.7: 0.6. Immunomodulatory assays involving RAW264.7 cells indicated that EMP exhibits significantly enhanced pinocytic and phagocytic capacities and promotes the secretion of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and cytokines (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6) by activating RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, EMP is recognized by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and has an immunomodulatory effect by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that EMP could be used as a functional food for immunological reagents.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus polysaccharide, Structural characterization, MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway.

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