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Archives of Animal Nutrition
Vol. 68, No.
4, 2014, Pages: 309-319

Effect of the combination of crude extracts of Penicillium griseofulvum and Fusarium graminearum containing patulin and zearalenone on rumen microbial fermentation and on their metabolism in continuous culture fermenters

María Belén Riccio, María Ofelia Tapia, Guadalupe Martínez, Sandra Mariela Aranguren, Susana Neyi Dieguez, Alejandro Luis Soraci & Edgardo Rodríguez

Laboratorio de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación Veterinaria de Tandil (CIVETAN), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, UNCPBA, Tandil, Argentina.


Six single-flow continuous cultures were used to study the effects of the mycotoxins patulin (PAT) and zearalenone (ZEN) alone or in combination on rumen microbial fermentation. In each of the four 7-d periods, the fermenters were supplemented in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of PAT (0 and 20 mg/l) and three levels of ZEN (0, 5 and 10 mg/l). The treatments did not affect the apparent and true digestibility of organic matter. PAT alone decreased the digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) (< 0.01), but in the presence of 5 or 10 mg/l of ZEN, there were no effects of PAT. In contrast, the digestibility of NDF and ADF was decreased at 10 mg/l of ZEN in the absence of PAT (< 0.05). The pH of the fermenters increased after 2 and 3 d of PAT treatment (p < 0.01). PAT decreased the concentration of total volatile acids (VFA), the molar proportion of acetate and the acetate:proportionate ratio (p < 0.01). The molar concentrations of other VFA were unchanged. Ammonia N (NH3–N) flow increased (p < 0.05) and there was a tendency to a higher NH3-N concentration (p < 0.1) in fermenters with PAT. Total N, non-ammonia N and bacterial N as well as efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of N utilisation were not affected by treatments. PAT was nearly completely degraded during incubation. The mean recovery of ZEN, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol expressed as a proportion of administered ZEN was less than 50% in effluents from fermenters receiving only ZEN and ZEN plus PAT, respectively. With exception of fibre digestion, the co-administration of PAT and ZEN did not elicit interaction effects on most measured parameters of rumen metabolism.

Keywords: in vitro culture, mycotoxins, patulin, rumen metabolism, zearalenol, zearalenone.

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