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Current Developments in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
2023, 473-511

Microbial consortium as an effective biocatalyst for the decolorization of textile dyes wastewater

Mayur Bharat Kurade1, Tatoba Ramchandra Waghmode2, Mital Chakankar3

Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, SOUTH KOREA.

Abstract

Microbial consortia are proven to be one of the most effective tools for the decolorization of textile industrial dyes and effluent. The microbial consortium offers several benefits in bioremediation, some of them include the faster rate of dye degradation and high efficiency, tolerance to drastic environmental changes, possession of concerted metabolic activities due to presence of multiple microbial species that carry out maximum catalysis of dye molecule or sometimes complete mineralization, and its feasibility in practical scale operations due to less requirements of sterile conditions and cost effectiveness. This chapter critically summarizes the basic principles of microbial interactions such as mutualism and commensalism as the most valuable microbial relationships within the consortium that are beneficial for the bioremediation of wastewater. Several different microbial consortia which combined the microbial species of bacteria, fungus, yeast, along with algae and plants which have been used for the treatment of textile dyes/effluent have been thoroughly evaluated. All combinations have their own advantages and disadvantages, which have been explored herein. Bacterial species are fast growing microorganisms while fungal species contain highly catalytic enzymatic system; thus, their combinations have been quite successful. Microalgae and plants have recently attracted researcher because of their potential of bioremediation and subsequent utilization of their biomass in biofuel generation which is commercially beneficial along with environmentally sustainable approach. Moreover, this chapter provides a brief introduction on newly emerging high-throughput techniques that deal with the engineering of synthetic microbial consortium for bioremediation and environmental cleanup.

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