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The Impact of Nanoparticles on Agriculture and Soil
2023, 139-159

Influence of nanoparticles on the soil microbial flora and their rhizospheric activities

Hemraj Chhipa

Agriculture University, Kota, Rajasthan, India.

Abstract

Nanotechnology has improved human life by increasing the speed and activity of nanomaterial-containing products. But the discharge of such products into the environment is a major concern at the present time. Accumulation of nanoparticles in the environment is affecting adversely to various components of the ecosystem. Microbes are a basic part of the ecosystem and play a significant role in soil fertility. Accumulation of different metal and metal oxide nanoparticles such as silver, copper, titanium, iron, zinc, carbon, etc. adversely affected the microbial and functional diversity in the soil. The role of nanomaterials in microbial toxicity and inhibition of microbial activity in the rhizosphere is a new area of research. In the current chapter, we discussed function of microbes in soil and how they are affected by the presence of different types of nanomaterials. We also reviewed the effect of nanomaterials on various microbial activities such as nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, waste degradation, and other microbial enzymatic activities. Increasing concentration of nanoparticles in the environment adversely affects the microbes related to different biogeochemical cycles and soil fertility. More research is required to understand the long-term effect of nanoparticles on soil microbial flora to regulate soil health.

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