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Geomicrobiology Journal
31, No. 1, 2014; Pages: 12-22

Diversity and Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in Diverse Chinese Paddy Soils

Liuqin Huanga, Hailiang Dongab, Shang Wanga, Qiuyuan Huangb & Hongchen Jiangc

State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology , China University of Geosciences , Beijing , China.


Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in three types of paddy soils of China before and after rice plantation were investigated by using an integrated approach including geochemistry, 454 pyrosequencing, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The abundances of AOA amoA gene were 1http://www.tandfonline.com/na101/home/literatum/publisher/tandf/journals/entities/223C.gif2 orders of magnitude higher than AOB amoA gene. The types of paddy soils had important impacts on the diversities of both AOA and AOB via clay mineralogy (smectite or illite-rich) and bioavailability of ammonium. The Nitrososphaera subcluster 5 and Nitrosopumilis cluster of AOA, and Nitrosomonas subcluster 5 and Nitrosospira subcluster 3 of AOB were well adapted to soils with high ammonium concentrations. AOA and AOB community structures were different before and after rice plantation, likely due to changes of pH and ammonium fertilization. The Nitrosospira subclusters 2 and 9 were well adapted to acidic paddysoils. However, the sensitivity of AOA and AOB community structures to these factors may be complicated by other geochemical conditions. The results of this study collectively demonstrated that multiple environmental factors, such as clay mineralogy, ammonium content and total organic carbon as well as soil pH, shaped AOA and AOB community structure and abundance.

Keywords:abundance; AOA; AOB; Chinese paddy soil; diversity; flooding.

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