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Nanomaterials for Soil Remediation
2021, 239-258

Soil contamination, risk assessment and nanobioremediation

Rajadesingu Suriyaprakash, Mohammed Junaid Hussain Dowlath, Sathish Kumar Karuppannan, Kantha D.Arunachalam

Center for Environmental Nuclear Research, Directorate of Research and Virtual Education, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India.

Abstract

Nanomaterials nowadays have been receiving more attention from scientists and researchers in different areas of environmental science, specifically in bioremediation due to their unique physical and chemical properties. For some types of waste, bioremediation provides a good cleanup strategy but as expected, it will not be useful for all. At sites with high concentrations of chemicals that are toxic to most microorganisms, bioremediation may not provide a feasible strategy. These include heavy metals and salt. Further, the advancement in science and technology has increased the standard of living which directly or indirectly contributes to the increase in waste and toxic material. Therefore the remediation of contaminants by use of existing technology is not effective and efficient in cleaning up the environment. In such cases, nanomaterials may be applied for bioremediation, which will not only have less toxic effect on microorganisms, but will also improve the microbial activity of the specific waste and toxic material which will be cost effective and not very time consuming. This chapter summarizes the major types of nanomaterials that have been used so far in the bioremediation of waste and toxic materials.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, bioremediation, heavy metals, microorganisms.

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