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Chemosphere
Volume 275, 2021, 129975

Remediation of emerging environmental pollutants: A review based on advances in the uses of eco-friendly biofabricated nanomaterials

Gurulingaiah Bhavyaa, Seema Anil Belorkarb, Raja Mythilic, Nagaraja Geethaa, Huntrike Shekar Shettya, Shashikant S. Udikerid, Sudisha Jogaiahe

Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru, 570 006, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The increased environmental pollutants due to anthropogenic activities are posing an adverse effects and threat on various biotic forms on the planet. Heavy metals and certain organic pollutants by their toxic persistence in the environment are regarded as significant pollutants worldwide. In recent years, pollutants exist in various forms in the environment are difficult to eliminate by traditional technologies due to various drawbacks. This has lead to shifting of research for the development of cost-effective and efficient technologies for the remediation of environmental pollutants. The adaption of adsorption phenomenon from the traditional technologies with the modification of adsorbents at nanoscale is the trended research for mitigating the environmental pollutants with petite environmental concerns. Over the past decade, the hidden potentials of biological sources for the biofabrication of nanomaterials as bequeathed rapid research for remediating the environmental pollution in a sustainable manner. The biofabricated nanomaterials possess an inimitable phenomenon such as photo and enzymatic catalysis, electrostatic interaction, surface active site interactions, etc., contributing for the detoxification of various pollutants. With this background, the current review highlights the emerging biofabricated nano-based adsorbent materials and their underlying mechanisms addressing the environmental remediation of persistent organic pollutants, heavy metal (loid)s, phytopathogens, special attention to the reduction of pathogen-derived toxins and air pollutants. Each category is illustrated with suitable examples, fundamental mechanism, and graphical representations, along with societal applications. Finally, the future and sustainable development of eco-friendly biofabricated nanomaterial-based adsorbents is discussed.

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