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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Volumes 244245, 2022, 106830

Radiation exposure due to 222Rn, 220Rn and their progenies in three metropolises in China and Japan with different air quality levels

Jun Hua,b,c, Yunyun Wud, Miki Arian Saputrae, Yanchao Songd, Guosheng Yangf, Shinji Tokonamia

Department of Radiation Measurement and Physical Dosimetry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564, Japan.

Abstract

Radiation exposure due to radon contributes most of the ionizing radiation exposure to people among natural radiation sources. This research measured the 222Rn, 220Rn by the RADUET and their progeny concentrations by the improved deposition based 222Rn and 220Rn progeny monitor, and the contribution of outdoor PM2.5 concentrations to indoors by a modified steady-state mass balance model in Beijing, Changchun, China and Aomori, Japan. Based on these results, we preliminarily explored the relevance between the city level outdoor PM2.5 exposure and indoor 222Rn, 220Rn inhalation exposure in these three metropolises with different air quality levels. The average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EERC) and equilibirum equivalent thoron concentration (EETC) indoor were 17.2 and 1.1 Bq m−3 in Beijing, 19.4 and 1.3 Bq m−3 in Changchun, and 10.8 and 0.9 Bq m−3 in Aomori, respectively. The indoor EERC and EETC in Beijing showed 1.4 and 2.2 times as high as that measured in 2006. The indoor radiation dose due to inhalation presented in a descending order as Changchun, Beijing and Aomori, which were in accordance with their outdoor 222Rn concentrations. The indoor radiation doses due to 220Rn contributed 30% of the total dose in the three cities, indicating that 220Rn cannot be neglected when evaluating indoor radiation dose. It should be noted that, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of outdoor origin presented strong correlation (r = 0.772) with indoor EETC and moderate correlation (r = 0.663) with indoor EERC, indicating that the PM2.5 of outdoor origin can break the concentration balance of the indoor PM2.5, then affect the indoor 222Rn and 220Rn behaviors, and further affect the inhalation exposure of radon.

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