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Low Carbon Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous Wastes
2022, 1-14

Overview of hazardous waste treatment and stabilization/solidification technology

Xinni Xiong1, Yuying Zhang1, Lei Wang2, Daniel C.W. Tsang3

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Abstract

Radon is odourless, colourless indoor air pollutant from the radiation source of uranium. The source of radon in indoor are walls, floor and ceiling. Importance of radon detection at buildings are rare as it cannot be suspected until faced with an health issues. Concentration of radon in indoor environment depends on various factors. Lund disorders are the most commonly reported issue with radon exposure. This paper concentrates on the sources, factors influencing the radon dispersion and the health issues rise up with high radon exposure.Hazardous waste management is one of the most significant sectors in utility services. In view of the growing amount of waste and the shortage of energy and resources, the conventional waste treatment approaches could hardly fulfill the need of sustainable development, and would cause various concerns to the environment, ecological systems, and public health. The current environmental challenges highlight the demands to achieve sustainable development goals (SDG) by means of state-of-the-art technologies to evolve from a linear economy to a circular model. This chapter provides an overview on the current situations and emerging approaches on hazardous waste treatment and remediation. The concept and cutting-edge technologies of sustainable waste management for achieving SDG are discussed. Current waste treatment including landfilling, waste-to-energy technique, hydrothermal treatment, washing and extraction, phytoremediation, bioremediation, sintering and melting, and cement rotary kilns coprocessing, and advanced oxidation and photocatalysis are discussed. As a cost-efficient and promising technology, stabilization/solidification is demonstrated in terms of efficiently treating soil/sediment, industrial waste, and radioactive waste. The work summarizes the state-of-art advances and frontiers on green chemistry, sustainable development, and the circular economy.

Keywords: Waste management, sustainable treatment, hazardous waste, green remediation, stabilization/solidification, state-of-the-art technologies.

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