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Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering
2020, Pages 149-175

Fate of pathogens and viruses in hospital wastewater and their treatment methods

Anita Talan, R.D.Tyagi

INRS-Eau, Terre, Environnement–Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Abstract

The hospital wastewater (HWW) treatment is a necessary process that aims to reduce the concentration of emerging contaminants such as trichloropropane, antibiotics, ß-blockers, and pathogens in treated water to the accepted level. The treatment of HWW is required to protect the receiving water bodies from pharmaceutical pollution. The examination, fast detection of pathogens in HWW, allows the elimination of these pathogens most effectively and reduces possible side effects posed on public health due to excessive pathogens and contaminants present in HWW. The occurrence of pathogens and viruses in HWW has been recognized as one of the critical issues that need attention. Because directly emitted HWW into environment affects the public health negatively. This chapter focuses on in-depth analysis of pathogenic microbes, high-risk clones with resistance genes present and associated with HWW treatment process such as whole genome sequencing. Furthermore, this chapter also focuses on recent techniques such as viromic analysis tools, xenosurveillance, and many more that are available for pathogen monitoring and analysis in the treated water.

Keywords: Emerging contaminants; hospital wastewater; high-risk clones; resistance genes; viromic analysis tools; whole genome sequencing; xenosurveillance.

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