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Chemosphere
Volume 280, 2021, 130792

Detection and remediation of pollutants to maintain ecosustainability employing nanotechnology: A review

Neelam Yadava,b, Vinod Kumar Gargc, Anil Kumar Chhillarb, Jogender Singh Ranaa

Department of Biotechnology, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Sonepat, Haryana, 131039, India.

Abstract

Environmental deterioration due to anthropogenic activities is a threat to sustainable, clean and green environment. Accumulation of hazardous chemicals pollutes soil, water and air and thus significantly affects all the ecosystems. This article highlight the challenges associated with various conventional techniques such as filtration, absorption, flocculation, coagulation, chromatographic and mass spectroscopic techniques. Environmental nanotechnology has provided an innovative frontier to combat the aforesaid issues of sustainable environment by reducing the non-requisite use of raw materials, electricity, excessive use of agrochemicals and release of industrial effluents into water bodies. Various nanotechnology based approaches including surface enhance scattering, surface plasmon resonance; and distinct types of nanoparticles like silver, silicon oxide and zinc oxide have contributed significantly in detection of environmental pollutants. Biosensing technology has also gained significant attention for detection and remediation of pollutants. Furthermore, nanoparticles of gold, ferric oxide and manganese oxide have been used for the on-site remediation of antibiotics, organic dyes, pesticides, and heavy metals. Recently, green nanomaterials have been given more attention to address toxicity issues of chemically synthesized nanomaterials. Hence, nanotechnology has provided a platform with tremendous applications to have sustainable environment for present as well as future generations. This review article will help to understand the fundamentals for achieving the goals of sustainable development, and healthy environment.

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