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Water Air Soil Pollut
Vol. 227, 2016, Pages: 1 –12

Changes in Bacterial Populations During Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Sergio Cisneros de la Cueva, César Hernández Rodríguez,Nicolás Oscar Soto Cruz,Juan Antonio Rojas Contreras, Javier López Miranda

Instituto Tecnológico de Durango, Blvd. Felipe Pescador 1630 Ote. Col. Nueva Vizcaya, Apartado Postal 34080 Durango, Dgo, Mexico.

Abstract

Using an indoor microcosm assay, we ana- lyzed the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocar- bons (TPHs) by autochthonous bacterial populations in mining soil in the presence of a surfactant (Tween 80). The kinetic behavior of TPH biodegradation involved fast and slow stages. Initially, heterotrophic and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria increased in abundance by an order of magnitude, but both groups decreased to close to their initial population sizes by the end of experiment. The most efficient final biodegradation (61.5 %) was achieved using soil with 0.5 % added surfactant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dena- turing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to analyze changes in the bacterial community structure. During the fast biodegradation phase, bacterial species richness as indicated by DGGE profiles was reduced after long periods of TPH biodegradation with exposure to Tween 80. The distribution of families was modified, but no particular pattern could be identified. The main bacterial genera were Acinetobacter, Pedomicrobium, Halomonas, Rhizobium, Cryobacterium, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, Thermomonas, and Stenotrophomonas. Acinetobacter exhibited the highest species richness and was the most abundant and persis- tent genus, followed by Pedomicrobium and Rhizobium. Decreasing TPH biodegradation can be attributed to a reduction in the microbial population and the disappear- ance of most of the initial bacterial genera. The correla- tion between TPH biodegradation and microbial popu- lation dynamics helps explain long bioremediation times and can facilitate actions for increasing bioreme- diation efficiency.

Keywords: Soil bioremediation, Total petroleum hydrocarbons,Bacterial community, Bacterial diversity, PCR-DGGE, Surfactant.

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