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Biological Approaches to Controlling Pollutants
2022, 191-231

Advances in bioremediation of nonaqueous phase liquid pollution in soil and water

M. Muthukumaran

PG and Research Department of Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College (Autonomous), Affiliated to the University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Pollution is a vexatious change in the physical, chemical, or natural elements of air, land, and water that waste or debilitate our raw materials resources. Contamination of normal assets by the arrival of poisons including hydrocarbons is a key concern for human and biological well-being. Hydrocarbons, as nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), are of specific worry under shifting natural conditions as a result of their substantial ability to affect subsurface inconstancy, which empowers them to spread generally. Soils are progressively compromised by spillage of oil-based commodities—for example, petroleum, diesel, fuel at petroleum treatment facilities, underground stockpiling tanks, and siphon station pipelines. Remediation utilizing ordinary physical and synthetic techniques is uneconomical and creates tremendous volumes of waste substances. Biodegradation is a superior option by which hydrocarbon toxins can be eliminated from the climate. The impacts of water contamination, particularly oil slicks, should be addressed by bioremediation activities that can be delivered to spare the climate if there should be an occurrence of such a calamity. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenols are essential pollutants in oil slicks. Bioremediation is of interest worldwide as a potential oil slick cleanup method. Bioremediation incorporates many systems and techniques that are presently gaining recognition and status due to their well-being and cost-adequacy characteristics. Along these lines, the focal point of this section is to introduce the various methodologies of bioremediation of NAPL-contaminated soil–water assets. The compelling bioremediation for NAPL contamination utilizes different microphytes such as bacteria, fungi, algae, and the macrophytes of some plants. The primary biodegradation was done to NAPL pollutants by a halophilic bacterium consortium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia fergusonii in the presence of rhamnolipid. The capability of the indigenously segregated biosurfactant creating a creature of bacteria, Paenibacillus sp., to use waste-creating oils, the adequacy of Pseudomonas putida as an oil-biodegradable operator in soil polluted with diesel, the biosurfactant creation capacity of Stenotrophomonas sp. in the profiling of its bioremediation (bacterial remediation) capacity to remediate oil processing plant wastewater in a lab-scale bioreactor and evaluation of phytotoxicity of bioremediated oil wastewater, the fungus of Aspergillus sp. what's more, Rhizopus sp. were found to hydrocarbon debasement investigations were done to assess the development distance across of contagious provinces on negligible media supplement with utilized motor oil (mycoremediation), and the microalga of Chlorococcum humicola viably remediate oil penetrating modern muck and emanating both the pilot and the scaled-up level (phycoremediation). The plants of Typha domingensis and Canna generalis were successfully included in the bioremediation (phytoremediation) of NAPL contaminations. The results here are of direct use in applying bioremediation strategies in the field and for the dynamic identification of arrangements of NAPLs contaminating modern areas under shifting natural conditions as well as distinguishing viable or likely micro/macroorganisms that are appropriate organic operators on various NAPL poisons for significant bioremediation in climate cleanup.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Hydrocarbons, Micro/macrophytes, Nonaqueous phase liquids, Pollution.

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