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Journal of Environmental Management
Volume 309, 2022, 114685

Adsorption behaviour of pollutants: Heavy metals, radionuclides, organic pollutants, on clays and their minerals (raw, modified and treated): A review

Raman Novikau, Galina Lujaniene

Department of Environmental Research, State Research Institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, Vilnius, 02300, Lithuania.


The increasing anthropogenic pressure results in environmental pollution and thus adversely affects the integrity of ecosystems. Consequently, various methods of removing pollutants from effluents have been developed and used to minimise this negative impact, with adsorption on clay minerals identified as the most promising approach. This review examines the adsorption of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic pollutants on clays/clay minerals and their composites under diverse conditions and deals with the applications of these materials in the construction of engineering barriers for waste management. Additionally, we discuss the efficiency and mechanisms of pollutant adsorption on clays subjected to various treatments and modifications while describing the beneficial effects of such modification/treatment on adsorption performance, reusability, and in vivo/in vitro toxicity.

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