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Chemosphere
Volume 276, 2021, 130192

A holistic approach to soil contamination and sustainable phytoremediation with energy crops in the Aegean Region of Turkey

Benginur Bastabak, Elif Gödekmerdan, Günnur Koçar

Ege University, Biomass Energy Systems and Technologies Application and Research Center, İzmir, Turkey.

Abstract

The objective of this current review article is to evaluate the current knowledge of the contaminated soil in the study area based on reports and the results of previous experimental studies in the literature and to discuss the feasibility of phytoremediation with biofuel production using energy crops. The results indicated that the soil contamination was related mainly to the thermal power plant and mining activities in Kütahya, high industrial activity in İzmir, heavy metal and radioactive pollution in Manisa and Muğla. Moreover, the sources of the contamination are geothermal resources and transportation in Aydın and Denizli, respectively. However, soil pollution in Afyonkarahisar and Uşak provinces has not been discussed due to a lack of detailed reports and data in the literature. Besides, energy crops such as Zea mays, Ricinus communis, and Gossypium hirsitum were identified as appropriate candidates for İzmir, Denizli, Manisa, and Aydın due to being resistant to the arid climate. In Muğla province, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus bicostata can be cultivated because of having adaptation to moderate climatic conditions. Ricinus communis and Helianthus annuus were determined to be very suitable energy crops for the phytoremediation of many heavy metals in Kütahya. The review promotes the development of economic, environmental, and social benefits to regain the contaminated areas through phytoremediation. The findings of the study are important for creating sustainable solutions for remediation of polluted soils in Turkey, as well as for shedding light on the process of establishing appropriate policies to make soils contaminated suitable for agriculture.

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