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Microbiome Under Changing Climate
2022, 489-506

Role of microbes in methane emission from constructed wetlands

Simranjeet Singh1, Daljeet Singh Dhanjal2

Interdisciplinary Centre for Water Research (ICWaR), Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Abstract

Owing to the rising methane (CH4) level in the atmosphere, CH4 has become the second anthropogenic greenhouse gas next to CO2. It is well known that CH4 fluxes regulate the balance between consumption and formation of CH4. Many researches are focused on CH4 fluxes in constructed wetlands (CWs) demonstrating the importance of wastewater treatment in various CH4 sources. Many microbial species are involved in the aerobic degradation of pollutants drained in the wastewater. It has been well comprehended that plants in CWs contribute to the pollutant removal process via trapping pollutant particles in the roots. The roots of the plant remove suspended particles in the water by acting as the physical filter. Thus it is stated to use plant species that have dense roots to work as biosorbent and filter. Microbes present on the plants’ root degrade the organic pollutants, and, in few cases, plants take up the organic pollutants. In this chapter, we aim to discuss the role of microbes in the emission of methane from CWs and gather updated information related to the mechanism and microbial diversity of CWs. Besides this we will also focus on the emission of methane from CW, the influence of wetland media on microbes, facilitated methane emission by microbes, and methane oxidation in the CWs.

Keywords: Constructed wetlands, microcosm, methane fluxes, nitrous oxide, methanogens, wastewater treatment.

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