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Science of The Total Environment
Volume 699, 2020, 134181

Plant-insect-microbe interaction: A love triangle between enemies in ecosystem

Ali Nomana,b, Muhammad Aqeelc, Muhammad Qasima,IjazHaidera,d, Yonggen Loua

Institute of Insect Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.

Abstract

In natural ecosystems, plants interact with biotic components such as microbes, insects, animals and other plants as well. Generally, researchers have focused on each interaction separately, which condenses the significance of the interaction. This limited presentation of the facts masks the collective role of constantly interacting organisms in complex communities disturbing not only plant responses but also the response of organisms for each other in natural ecological settings. Beneficial microorganisms interact with insect herbivores, their predators and pollinators in a bidirectional way through the plant. Fascinatingly, insects employ diverse tactics to protect themselves from parasites or predators. Influences of microbial and insects attack on plants can bring changes in info-chemical frameworks and play a role in the food chain also. After insect herbivory and microbial pathogenesis, plants exhibit intense morpho-physiological and chemical reprogramming that leads to repellence/attraction of attacking organism or its natural enemy. The characterization of such interactions in different ecosystems is receiving due consideration, and underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms must be the point of concentration to unveil the evolution of multifaceted multitrophic interactions. Therefore, we have focused this phenomenon in a more realistic setting by integrating ecology and physiology to portray these multidimensional interfaces. We have shown, in this article, physiological trajectories in plant-microbe and insect relationship and their ecological relevance in nature. We focus and discuss microbial pathogenesis in plants, induced defense and the corresponding behavior of herbivore insects and vice-versa. It is hoped that this review will stimulate interest and zeal in microbes mediated plant-insect interactions along with their ecological consequences and encourage scientists to accept the challenges in this field.

Keywords:Ecosystem; Interactions; Plants; Parasitism; Symbiosis.

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