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The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants Biological Treatment Systems
2021, Pages 589-614

Microbial remediation and detoxification of heavy metals by plants and microbes

Ashutosh Kumara, Touseef Hussainb, Susmita Ca, Deepak Kumar Mauryac, Mohd Danishb, Shahabab Ahmad Farooquid

a ICAR-Indian Institute of Seed Science, Mau, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Under the continuous industrial extension and development, environmental pollution with heavy metals has been accepted as environmental and health treats in the sustainable habitations. Heavy metals have reached to almost every natural resource and resulted in serious health issues to animals and humans due to long persistence in nature. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look for efficient, profitable, and ecologically sustainable methods to manage heavy metals which are released in environments (water, air, and soil). However, the chemical-based management of heavy metals is effective, but the by-products generated give rise to secondary wastes and these methods are expensive to execute. Thus, recent advances in bioremediation of heavy metals have promoted plant- and microbial-based heavy metals processing as they present easy and eco-friendly ways for heavy metal remediation. Bioremediation mechanisms include adsorption, reduction, or eradication of contaminants from the environment by biological resources (microorganisms and plants). Further, quick bioremediation includes application of genetically engineered microbes with increased efficiency to ramify the toxic effects of heavy metals in an affected region. This chapter provides current aspects of bioremediation potential of microbes, particularly in the context of environmental protection. In addition, the current chapter also covers a discussion on adverse effects of heavy metals to humans, plants, and microorganisms, mechanisms of bioremediation, as well as potential role of genomics and proteomics in relation with bioremediation.

Keywords: Agriculture, bacteriaecosystem, environment, fungi, heavy metals, plants, soil.

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