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Future Foods
Volume 4, 2021, 100069

Fructooligosaccharide decreases the production of uremic toxin precursor through modulating gut microbes mediated tyrosine metabolism pathway

Jingbo Lua,b,1, Jianping Lia,b,1, Jiating Yina,b, Chengxi Lia,b, Sen Zhanga,b, Jianming Guoa,b, Jinao Duana,b

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China.


Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) is one of the most important and well-known prebiotics that confers health benefits on the host. The effect of FOS is frequently associated with modulation of the abundance of gut microbes. However, the effect of FOS on gut microbes-mediated metabolism pathway remains largely undefined. This study aimed to explore the modulation effect of FOS on the metabolism pathway of tyrosine in gut microbes. Moreover, the effect of FOS on the production of p-cresol by gut microbes was studied, in which p-cresol is a uremic toxin precursor produced by tyrosine metabolism pathway. The results showed that FOS significantly prompted the anabolism pathway of tyrosine, which might promote the proliferation of gut microbes. Additionally, FOS significantly inhibited the catabolism pathway of tyrosine, therefore decreased p-cresol production in tyrosine oxidative catabolism pathway. Two mechanisms were proposed to explain the effect of FOS, one was to switch tyrosine catabolism from oxidative pathway to reductive pathway, the other was to directly inhibit the oxidative pathway in which p-cresol was produced. In conclusion, the present study suggested that as a well-known prebiotic, FOS inhibited the biosynthesis of p-cresol in gut microbes by regulating gut microbes-mediated tyrosine metabolism.

Keywords: Fructooligosaccharide, Gut microbes, Tyrosine, p-cresol, p-cresyl sulfate, Uremic toxin.

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