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Plant Microbes Symbiosis: Applied Facets
2015, DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-2068-8_15

Azospirillum: A Biofertilizer for Every Crop

Meesala Sreevidya, Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Torunn M. MelÝ, Nebojsa Simic, Per Bruheim, Mamta Sharmaa, Vadlamudi Srinivas & Gottumukkala Alekhya

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 324, Telangana, India.


A total of 48 fungi were characterized for their antagonistic potential against Botrytis cinerea causing Botrytis Gray Mold (BGM) disease in chickpea by dual-culture and metabolite production assays. The culture filtrate of the most promising isolate, VFI-51, was purified by various chromatographic techniques and identified as “citrinin” by NMR and MS studies. The efficacy of citrinin was demonstrated to control BGM in chickpea under greenhouse conditions. The sequences of 18S rDNA gene of the VFI-51 matched with Penicillium citrinum in BLAST analysis. The VFI-51 produced siderophore, hydrocyanic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, lipase, protease and β-1,3-glucanase;grew well in NaCl (up to 15%), at pH between 7 and 11 and temperatures between 20 and 40oC; and was compatible with fungicides bavistin and thiram. Under greenhouse and field conditions, VFI-51 significantly enhanced the nodule number, nodule weight, root and shoot weight and stover and grain yield over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, VFI-51 also significantly enhanced total N, available P and OC over the un-inoculated control. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that VFI-51 colonized on the roots of chickpea. This study concluded that VFI-51 have the potential for biocontrol of BGM and plant growth promotion in chickpea.

Keyowrds: Penicillium citrinum, citrinin, biocontrol, botrytis gray mold, plant growth-promotion, chickpea.

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