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Environ. Sci. Technol
48, No. 2 xx, 2014; Pages: 1158–1165

Interaction of Heavy Metals and Pyrene on Their Fates in Soil and Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea)

Mang Lu†‡, Zhong-Zhi Zhang *†, Jing-Xiu Wang †,Min Zhang †, Yu-Xin Xu ‡, and Xue-Jiao Wu §

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China.


90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100–2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene–heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal–organics co-contaminated soil.

Keywords: pyrene and heavy metals; heavy metal toxicity to plants; dissipation in soils; phytoremediation of heavy metal–organics co-contaminated soil.

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