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Journal of Hazardous Materials
Volume 414, 2021, 125494

Effects of magnetic biochar-microbe composite on Cd remediation and microbial responses in paddy soil

Lu Wanga,b,c, Hanrui Chena,b, Jizi Wua,b, Laibin Huangc, Philip C. Brookesa, Jorge L. Mazza Rodriguesc, Jianming Xua,b, Xingmei Liua,b

College of Environmental Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Abstract

There is growing global interest in the bioremediation of cadmium (Cd) using combinations of biochar and microorganisms. However, the interactions among biochar, introduced and indigenous microorganisms remain unclear. Accordingly, a 90 day microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate this by adding Bacillus sp. K1 strain inoculated rice straw biochar (SBB) and magnetic straw biochar (MBB) into a Cd contaminated paddy soil from Hunan, China. All treatments were incubated aerobically (60% water holding capacity) or anaerobically for 90 d. During both soil incubations, Bacillus sp. K1 successfully colonized in soil with composites applications. Soil pH was significantly increased from acid to neutral, and available Cd decreased with the addition of both composites. The better remediation efficiency of MBB than SBB under anerobic conditions was attributed to the transformation of acetic acid-extractable Cd into the residual fraction, caused by Cd2+ bonding with crystal Fe3O4. The application of the two kinds of composites caused similar changes to both microbial communities. There was a slight decrease in indigenous microbial alpha diversity with the MBB aerobic application, while the total population number of bacteria was increased by 700%. Both the redundancy analysis and Mantel analyses indicated that pH and microbial biomass C contributed to the colonization of Bacillus sp. K1 with SBB under aerobic conditions, and with MBB under anerobic conditions, respectively. The research provides a new insight into interactive effects and investigates immobilization mechanisms involved of bacterial/biochar composites in anaerobic and aerobic soils.

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