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Leishmania tropica
Symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis may include:
  • Breathing difficulty, Skin sores, which may become a skin ulcer that heals very slowly
  • Stuffy nose, runny nose, and nosebleeds, Swallowing difficulty, Ulcers and wearing away (erosion) in the mouth, tongue, gums, lips, nose, and inner nose

Systemic visceral infection in children usually begins suddenly with:

  • Cough, iarrhea, Fever, Vomiting

Adults usually have a fever for 2 weeks to 2 months, along with symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and appetite loss. Weakness increases as the disease gets worse.

Other symptoms of systemic visceral leishmaniasis may include:

  • Abdominal discomfort, Fever that lasts for weeks; may come and go in cycles, Night sweats, Scaly, gray, dark, ashen skin, Thinning hair, Weight loss
Medicines called antimony-containing compounds are the main drugs used to treat leishmaniasis. These include:
  • Meglumine antimoniate, Sodium stibogluconate

Other drugs that may be used include:

  • Amphotericin B, Ketoconazole, Miltefosine, Paromomycin, Pentamidine

Patients with drug-resistant viral leishmaniasis may need to have their spleen removed (splenectomy).

Preventive measures
Preventing sandfly bites is the most immediate form of protection. You can prevent a bite by:
  • Putting fine mesh netting around the bed (in areas where the disease occurs)
  • Screening windows, Wearing insect repellent, Wearing protective clothing

Public health measures to reduce the sandfly population and animal reservoirs are important. There are no vaccines or drugs that prevent leishmaniasis.

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