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Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops
2021, 371-400

Health Risks and Environmental Concerns of GM Crop Adoption

Usha Singh Gaharwara, Akanksha Vermaa, Richa Singhb, Tulika Prasadb, Paulraj Rajamania

School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.


Agri-biotechnological approaches have introduced an expansion of genetically modified crops (GM) which has immense potential for betterment of agricultural practices. There are several possible benefits of GM crops includes high yield thereby solving food and nutritional security, producing herbicide tolerance, insecticide resistance varieties, reducing dependency on agrochemical thus reducing formers exposure to chemicals. However, potential risk and biosafety concerns are associated directly and indirectly with it. Flow of genetic information, generation of super-weed, adverse effects on beneficial species, development of resistance verities, and adverse effects on existing biodiversity reveal its unintentional adverse impacts on environment. Several health implications such as allergenicity, genetic hazards, and toxicity to different organs are associated with it. Moreover, studies revealed its negative impacts not only in existing biodiversity but in evolutionary patterns also. However, controversial data and ill-conducted investigations are few solid limitations. A matter of high significance is to deliver existing information available along with various concerns, that is, socioeconomic, political, and ethical concerns in GM crop adaptation.

Keywords: genetic hazard, allergenicitysuper-weeds, toxicity, biodiversity, GM plants, precision agriculture, environmental risk assessment.

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