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Nano-Bioremediation : Fundamentals and Applications
2022, 313-337

Nanobiocatalysts for wastewater remediation and redefining of pollutants

Jakub Zdartaa, Karolina Kazmierczaka, Katarzyna Jankowskaa

Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland.

Abstract

Biological treatment of water and wastewater using microorganisms and/or enzymes has surfaced as a promising approach for removal of hazardous pollutants. Particularly, enzymatic techniques, based on oxidoreductase enzymes, have several attractive advantages including high enzyme activity, sustainability, low cost, low energy requirements, and a lack of toxic solvents. However, free enzymes suffer due to their low stability and extremely limited reusability. To overcome these drawbacks, enzymes’ immobilization is frequently applied, which results in improvement of catalytic features of the biocatalyst and enhanced enzymes recovery and reuse. It has been reported that a key effect on the final properties of the immobilized enzyme is selection of suitable support materials. Over recent years, progress in the synthesis of nanostructured materials has prompted their use as supports for enzyme immobilization mainly due to their unique properties, such as large surface area and small particle size. The nanoscale materials of organic, inorganic, and hybrid/composite origin are also used to immobilize enzymes such as laccase, tyrosinase, and peroxidases to produce efficient nanobiocatalysts for removal of selected water pollutants. In this chapter, we present an overview of the recent achievements in the removal of pollutants, mainly phenol and its derivatives, from water bodies using nanoimmobilized enzymes. It has been shown that such an approach results in effective removal of pollutants and its conversion into less toxic compounds compared with parent substances. However, further progress and improvements will allow enzymatic treatment of phenolic compounds to become one of the most significant removal strategies.

Keywords: Nanobiocatalysis, Nanobiocatalysts, Enzyme immobilization, Pollutants removal, Conversion products.

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