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Microbiological Analysis of Foods and Food Processing Environments
2022, Pages 307-318

Isolation and typing techniques of foodborne and waterborne viruses

Osman Erkmen

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey.


A virus is on the borderline between living and nonliving things. It is composed of nucleic acid within a protein coat. Virus particles follow one of two cycles of viral reproduction: lysogenic cycle and lytic cycle. Some viruses do not kill cells and transform to a lysogenic state. Viruses cannot replicate in foods but contaminate foods and are transmitted as latent particles. The few infectious particles in foods may be sufficient to cause disease. The isolation of viruses, the identification of bacteriophages, and the typing of bacteriophages and bacteria involves culturing viruses on living cells, for example, bacterial cell and animal cell cultures. The use of bacterial indicators of fecal contamination may indicate the presence of viruses in foods. Infectious virus particles must be separated from food components before identification. Separation is usually accomplished by liquefaction and concentration of viral particles from the clarified sample.

Keywords: Viruses, typing technique, enteric viruses, virus identification, bacteriophage.

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