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Food Microbiology
Vol. 72, 2018, Pages: 135-145

Evaluation of fingerprinting techniques to assess genotype variation among Zygosaccharomyces strains

Tikam Chand Dakal, Lisa Solieri, Paolo Giudici

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Amendola 2, Reggio Emilia 42122, Italy.


Molecular typing techniques are key tools in surveillance of food spoilage yeasts, in investigations on intra-species population diversity, and in tracing selected starters during fermentation. Unlike previous works on strain typing of Zygosaccharomyces spoilage species, here Zygosaccharomyces mellis and the Zygosaccharoymces rouxii complex yeasts, which include Z. rouxiiZygosaccharomyces sapae, and a mosaic lineage (ML) of putatively hybrids, were evaluated by three typing methods for intra- and inter-species resolution. Overall these yeasts are relevant for food fermentation and spoilage, but are quite difficult to discriminate at strain and species level as they evolved by reticulation. A pool of 76 strains from different sources were typed by M13 and (GTG)5 MSP-PCR fingerprinting and PCR-RFLP of ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS). We demonstrated that M13 overcame (GTG)5 fingerprinting to group Z. sapae, Z. rouxiiZ. mellis and the ML isolates in congruent distinct clusters. Even if (GTG)5 primer yielded a number of DNA fingerprints comparable with those obtained by M13 primer, it failed to discriminate Z. sapaeZ. mellis and Z. rouxii at species level. Clustering of IGS RFLP patterns obtained with three endonucleases produced groups congruent with species assignment and highlighted intra-species diversity similar to that observed by M13 fingerprinting. However, IGS PCR amplification failed for 14 ML and 6 Z. mellis strains under the experimental conditions tested here, indicating that this marker could be less easy to use in fast typing protocol. Finally, our results posit that the genetic diversity within Z. sapae and Z. mellis could be shaped by isolation source. The information generated in this study would facilitate the monitoring of these yeasts during food processing and storage, and provides preliminary evidences about Z. sapae and Z. mellis intra-species diversity.

Keywords: Zygosaccharomyces, M13 MSP-PCR fingerprinting, (GTG)5 MSP-PCR fingerprinting, Food spoilage, DNA typing, IGS PCR-RFLP.

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