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Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Volume 96, 2023, 106407

Applications of ultrasonication on food enzyme inactivation- recent review report

Kaavya Rathnakumara, Ranjitha Gracy T. Kalaivendanb, Gunaseelan Eazhumalaib

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53707, WI, the United States of America.

Abstract

Ultrasound processing has been widely applied in food sector for various applications such as decontamination and structural and functional components modifications in food. Enzymes are proteinaceous in nature and are widely used due to its catalytic activity. To mitigate the undesirable effects caused by the enzymes various technologies have been utilized to inactive the enzymes and improve the enzyme efficiency. Ultrasound is an emerging technology that produces acoustic waves which causes rapid formation and collapse of bubbles. It has the capacity to break the hydrogen bonds and interact with the polypeptide chains due to Vander Waals forces leading to the alteration of the secondary and tertiary structure of the enzymes thereby leading to loss in their biological activity. US effectively inactivates various dairy-related enzymes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactoperoxidase (LPO), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) with increased US intensity and time without affecting the natural dairy flavors. The review also demonstrates that inactivation of enzymes presents in fruit and vegetables such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methyl esterase (PME), and peroxidase. The presence of the enzymes causes detrimental effects causes off-flavors, off-colors, cloudiness, reduction in viscosity of juices, therefore the formation of high-energy free molecules during sonication affects the catalytic function of enzymes and thereby causing inactivation. Therefore this manuscript elucidates the recent advances made in the inactivation of common, enzymes infruits, vegetables and dairy products by the application of ultrasound and also explains the enzyme inactivation kinetics associated. Further this manuscript also discusses the ultrasound with other combined technologies, mechanisms, and its effects on the enzyme inactivation.

Keywords: Catalytic activity, Protein, Polyphenol oxidase, Peroxidase, Kinetics, Food Safety.

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