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South African Journal of Botany
Volume 156, 2023, Pages 177-185

A triterpenoid saponin bacoside-A3 from the aerial parts of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. with acetylcholinesterase enzyme combating Alzheimer's disease

Rajan Logesha,b, Saravanan Vivekanandarajah Sathasivampillaic

Department of Pharmacognosy, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore- 570015, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease has become a rapidly increasing issue of public health worldwide, and treatment strategies are of greater concern, as the population continues to rise. Medicinal plants and phytochemicals have a rich history of being utilized to treat a wide range of illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease. Plants and phytochemicals could be important target options for discovering new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, this study standardized bacoside-A3 isolated from Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. aqueous methanolic extract. Bacoside-A3 was isolated, chemical structure determined, standardized, using High-Performance Thin layer Chromatography (HPTLC), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), NMR spectroscopy, and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and its acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities was investigated using in vitro acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory assay. Results showed significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of extract, fractions, and bacoside-A3 with IC50 values ranging from 19.4 to 42.8 µg/ml and galantamine was utilized as a standard drug. A competitive type of inhibition was discovered in the enzyme kinetic study. In addition, based on the findings, it is believed that bacoside-A3 could be a promising target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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