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Nano-Bioremediation : Fundamentals and Applications
2022, 243-261

Nanomaterials for bioremediation of air pollution

Sarmad Ahmad Qamara, Pankaj Bhattb,c, Suresh Ghotekard

Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Abstract

This chapter aims to summarize the global air pollution problem critically through the comprehensive assessment of organic, inorganic, and biological sources; key challenges to identify the problem; and the remediation of these pollutants using nano- and/or bioremediation technologies. Air pollution has emerged as a global challenge due to its rising socioeconomic and health risks. The impacts and intensity of these pollutants have developed more critically, especially in developing countries that lack proper management and protection systems. Several clinical investigations have associated health disorders, poor quality of life, and rising mortality rates with pollutants present in the air we breathe. Among these air pollutants that cause serious health issues and increasing mortality rates, particulate matter of different sizes is alarming. The major air pollutants include SOx, NOx, O3, and particulate matter, which have been continuously increasing over the last two decades. Although substantial efforts have been made to describe the emerging issue of air pollution, the sources and nature of contributing factors and the identification and remediation methods remain inadequately understood. This study basically aims to use the available data and arrange them in a systematized way to help the scientific community to understand study gaps, critical challenges, and future possibilities toward sustainable environment. Moreover, the emerging bioremediation technologies based on nano- and biotechnological processes have been discussed in detail. A way forward while mentioning these technologies, the key issues and challenges that need further investigations have also been discussed.

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