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Environmental Technology & Innovation
Volume 24, 2021, 101826

Critical review on microbial community during in-situ bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial wastewater

Pooja Sharmaa, Ashutosh Kumar Pandeyb, Sang-Hyoun Kimb, Surendra Pratap Singhc, Preeti Chaturvedid, Sunita Varjanie

Department of Environmental Microbiology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Central University, Vidya Vihar, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226025, India.

Abstract

This review aims to summarise recent studies on in-situ microbial remediation of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The major environmental issue of heavy metal(s) pollution in groundwater is worldwide due to the continuous development of industrial activities. Microbial remediation has been reported to show intense changes in the microbial diversity induced by heavy metals, environmental pollution, and adaptation mechanisms that enable microbes to live in environments contaminated by metals. In-situ bioremediation is reported as a solution for emerging contaminant problems; microbes are beneficial to remediate the contaminated environment. The assessment approaches for evaluating the efficacy of remediation through in-situ bioremediation technology in future research leads to further attention by the researchers. The success of bioremediation depends upon the polluted site, microbial species selection, and availability of toxic metals for uptake. It is a cost-effective microbes-based method for remediation of toxic metals. This review provides novel approaches for evaluating these remediation technologies and integrated measurement methods to evaluate the efficacy of remediation employing microbes. This review also offers valuable information for understanding the fundamental role of microorganisms in the in-situ bioremediation for pollutant(s) removal process.

Keywords: Wastewater, Bioremediation, Metal toxicity, Soil pollution, Environmental sustainability.

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