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Environmental Research
Volume 209, 2022, 112793

Carbon-based catalyst for environmental bioremediation and sustainability: Updates and perspectives on techno-economics and life cycle assessment

Vivek Kumar Gaura,b,1, Krishna Gautamb,1, Poonam Sharmac,1

School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Global rise in the generation of waste has caused an enormous environmental concern and waste management problem. The untreated carbon rich waste serves as a breeding ground for pathogens and thus strategies for production of carbon rich biochar from waste by employing different thermochemical routes namely hydrothermal carbonization, hydrothermal liquefaction and pyrolysis has been of interest by researchers globally. Biochar has been globally produced due to its diverse applications from environmental bioremediation to energy storage. Also, several factors affect the production of biochar including feedstock/biomass type, moisture content, heating rate, and temperature. Recently the application of biochar has increased tremendously owing to the cost effectiveness and eco-friendly nature. Thus this communication summarized and highlights the preferred feedstock for optimized biochar yield along with the factor influencing the production. This review provides a close view on biochar activation approaches and synthesis techniques. The application of biochar in environmental remediation, composting, as a catalyst, and in energy storage has been reviewed. These informative findings were supported with an overview of lifecycle and techno-economical assessments in the production of these carbon based catalysts. Integrated closed loop approaches towards biochar generation with lesser/zero landfill waste for safeguarding the environment has also been discussed. Lastly the research gaps were identified and the future perspectives have been elucidated.

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