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Nano-Bioremediation : Fundamentals and Applications
2022, 517-540

Bioremediation of organic pesticides using nanomaterials

Nisha Gaura, Batul Diwanb, Ravish Choudharyc

Department of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.


Pesticides are used to control and destroy pests and weeds. On the basis of their origin and the type of pest they target, they are classified into different categories. Chemical pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural fields are insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Moreover, these chemicals show adverse effects on the environment, such as reduced population of insect pollinators and a threat to endangered species and habitat of birds when used in excess. Additionally, these agrochemicals also cause various health issues upon consumption, such as skin-, eye-, and nervous system-related problems, while their prolonged exposure causes cancer. To reduce the content of pesticides in the soil, various techniques in the past have been developed on the basis of surface adsorption, membrane filtration, and biological degradation. However, these techniques showed some drawbacks such as less specificity and sensitivity and slow response. Therefore, for the remediation of pesticides and their sensing, nanotechnology has emerged as a helping tool. This chapter focuses on the sources of organic pesticides and their classification and fate in the environment. In addition, this chapter covers the bioremediation methods of organic pesticides by using the nanotechnology method and their mechanism of degradation.

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