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Biological Approaches to Controlling Pollutants
2022, 139-162

Advances in dye contamination: health hazards, biodegradation, and bioremediation

Siddharth Vats1, Shreya Srivastava1, Neha Maurya1

Department of Civil Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India.


Artificial color is an important part of day-to-day life. Dyes are used to color substances by chemical bonding. All color demand is fulfilled by the chemical industries, and this has led to the production of environmental pollutants that have a negative impact on the health of humans, animals, and the environment. The migration properties of small-molecules dyes in natural and synthetic fibers have been known about for a long time. Biobased dyes are in liquid form, whereas synthetic dyes are in powder form and require an enormous amount of water for dyeing purposes. Textile and dyestuff industries, distilleries, and tanneries are some of the industries that release highly colored wastewater. Recalcitrant compounds such as synthetic dyes are highly resistant to degradation and find application in paper printing, color photography, and the food and leather industries. This has brought a focus on ways to reduce existing and future environmental pollution. We need environmental remediation and green chemistry to maintain a sustainable human society. There has been a tremendous increase in awareness of the toxic, carcinogenic, and other health-related effects of dyes that were not considered previously.

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