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Biological Approaches to Controlling Pollutants
2022, 163-177

Advances in bioremediation of industrial wastewater containing metal pollutants

Vadivel Karthika1, Udayakumar Sekaran2, Gulsar Banu Jainullabudeen3

Department of Crop Management, Kumaraguru Institute of Agriculture, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Human activities have become the source of myriad pollutants and have accelerated the pressure on natural resource depletion. Intensive farming, urbanization, rapid industrialization, and other human activities have resulted in land deterioration and degradation, a polluted environment, and a downturn in crop productivity across various sectors of agriculture. Several alternative methods have been designed and developed, but often, these processes risk environmental damage by producing secondary pollutants. Biological treatment systems have diversified applications, such as the cleanup of site contaminants in soil, water, streams, and sludge. Bioremediation, an efficacious and lucrative eco-friendly management tool, utilizes microorganisms to degrade or reduce the concentration of hazardous wastes at the contaminated site without causing additional deterioration of the environment. This chapter discusses the role of a vast array of microorganisms used in the reclamation of wastewater containing metal pollutants through bioremediation and puts forward thoughts and opportunities for further research in the field.

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