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Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy
Volume 30, 2022, 100866

Engineering magnetic nanobiocatalytic systems with multipurpose functionalities for biocatalysis, biotechnology and bioprocess applications

Muhammad Bilala, Ehsan Ullah Rashidb, Jakub Zdartaa, Josť C.S. dos Santosc,d, Pedro C.B. Fernandese,f,g, Hairong Chengh, Teofil Jesionowskia

Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, PL-60695, Poznan, Poland.

Abstract

Enzymes are high-performance natural biological catalysts with wide-ranging applications in agricultural, medical, food and environmental sectors. Nevertheless, lack of efficient recovery, reusability, and high cost of the soluble form of enzymes are the most daunting challenges rendering biocatalytic systems inadequate for industrial exploitation. In order to deal with these inadequacies, immobilization appears to be a prodigious approach for enhancing the stability and catalytic efficiency of enzymes, as well as enabling their separation and reusability in continuous reaction batches. Among different nanostructures, magnetic nanomaterials have garnered supreme interest as support matrices for biomolecules and enzymes immobilization because of their substantial surface area, larger surface-to-volume ratio, modifiable surface, and adjustable surface particle size, stability, and high mass transferring ability. In addition, they can be quickly recovered from the complex reaction system by a simple external magnetic field. Magnetic nanoparticles incorporated biocatalysts demonstrated a broad-working temperature and pH profile and augmented storage and thermal stabilities compared to their native derivatives. This paper provides a recent and state-of-the-art overview of the development and application of multifunctional magnetic nanobiocatalytic systems for an array of biotechnological purposes. In the first half, the development, functionalization, and use of nanostructured magnetic materials as enzyme immobilization supports are delineated. Then the prospective applications of magnetic nanobiocatalytic systems in different industrial sectors, including wastewater treatment, biodiesel and butanol production, hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, glucose monitoring, fruit juice extraction and clarification, and synthesis of non-natural benzylisoquinoline alkaloid are comprehensively vetted with representative examples. Finally, the conclusive points and future prospects in this evolving field are also directed.

Keywords: Nanobiocatalysis, Magnetic nanoparticles, Enzyme immobilization, Wastewater treatment, Biodiesel, Lignocellulosic biomass.

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