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Natural Resources Conservation and Advances for Sustainability
2022, 243-270

Environmental sustainability: Challenges and approaches

Faheem Ahmada, Qamar Saeedb, Syed Muhammad Usman Shaha

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan.


Environmental pollution and our survival are among the biggest challenges of future as pollution and contamination of natural resources are adversely affecting global livelihood. Global warming, greenhouse gas emission due to industrialization and urbanization, and residual chemicals being applied in industries and agricultural sector are taking 100 million lives per annum. Critical increase in health risks due to carcinogenic compounds by 20% is another effect of living in polluted habitats. Statistics suggest that till 2050, if no sustainable measures are taken, the world rain forests will diminish resulting into loss of biodiversity. Global warming is resulting into decline in world glacier reserves causing a noticeable rise of 3.3 mm in sea levels annually. Demographic growth and urbanization and industrialization, and agricultural developments are major environmental sustainability challenges and future strategies to mitigate their effects have been discussed in detail. We have discussed the conservation and restoration strategies and have put much of the emphasis to sustainable approaches toward environmental restoration. This chapter also explains the future perspectives of environmental sustainability and the scope of novel industrial and agricultural developments leading toward environmental sustainability. Using recent literature and a case study, we have elaborated the role of ecological pest management and industrial development that need to be focused toward sustainable environmental protection.

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