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Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry

Biological characterization of the hygrobafilomycin antibiotic JBIR-100 and bioinformatic insights into the hygrolide family of natural products

Evelyn M. Molloy, Jonathan I. Tietz, Patricia M. Blair, Douglas A. Mitchell

Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.


The hygrolides, a family of 16-member-ring-containing plecomacrolides produced by Actinobacteria, exhibit numerous reported bioactivities. Using HR-MS/MS, nucleophilic 1,4-addition-based labeling, NMR, and bioinformatic analysis, we identified Streptomyces varsoviensis as a novel producer of JBIR-100, a fumarate-containing hygrolide, and elucidated the previously unknown stereochemistry of the natural product. We investigated the antimicrobial activity of JBIR-100, with preliminary insight into mode of action indicating that it perturbs the membrane of Bacillus subtilis. S. varsoviensis is known to produce compounds from multiple hygrolide sub-families, namely hygrobafilomycins (JBIR-100 and hygrobafilomycin) and bafilomycins (bafilomycin C1 and D). In light of this, we identified the biosynthetic gene cluster for JBIR-100, which, to our knowledge, represents the first reported for a hygrobafilomycin. Finally, we performed a bioinformatic analysis of the hygrolide family, describing clusters from known and predicted producers. Our results indicate that potential remains for the Actinobacteria to yield novel hygrolide congeners, perhaps with differing biological activities.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Streptomyces varsoviensis; Polyketide; Plecomacrolide; Hygrolide; Hygrobafilomycin; JBIR-100; TS155-2; Nucleophilic 1,4-addition; Antimicrobial; Antifungal; Bioinformatics; Whole-genome sequencing; Resistance mapping.

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