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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology
Vol. 171, 2015, Pages: 4954

Toxicity of noradrenaline, a novel anti-biofouling component, to two non-target zooplankton species, Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia

C.L. Overturf, A.M. Wormington, K.N. Blythe, N.V. Gohad, A.S. Mount, A.P. Roberts

Department of Biological Sciences & Institute of Applied Science, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle, Denton, TX, 76203, USA.


Noradrenaline (NA) is the active component of novel antifouling agents and acts by preventing attachment of fouling organisms. The goal of this study was to examine the toxicity of NA to the non-target zooplankton D. magna and C. dubia. Neonates were exposed to one of five concentrations of NA and effects on survival, reproduction and molting were determined. Calculated LC50 values were determined to be 46 and 38 μM in C. dubia and D. magna, respectively. A 10-day C. dubia study found that reproduction metrics were significantly impacted at non-lethal concentrations. In D. magna, concentrations greater than 40 μM significantly impacted molting. A toxicity test was conducted with D. magna using oxidized NA, which yielded similar results. These data indicate that both NA and oxidized NA are toxic to non-target zooplankton. Results obtained from this study can be used to guide future ecological risk assessments of catecholamine-based antifouling agents.

Keywords: Biofouling; Daphnia; Non-target species; Noradrenaline; Toxicology; Zooplankton.

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