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Biological Approaches to Controlling Pollutants
2022, 79-106

Advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pesticide contamination

Shubhra Sharma1, Shikha Saxena1, Bhawana Mudgil2, Siddharth Vats1

Faculty of Biotechnology, Institute of Bio-Sciences and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The use of pesticides on a large scale globally has caused serious problems for the health of humans, animals, and the environment. Biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticides offer a much-needed solution to tackle this menace. The involvement of pesticides in the food chain has caused serious disturbances. Bioremediation and biodegradation are methods that involve creating a biological solution to mitigate, reduce, or clean xenobiotic, recalcitrant, and toxic materials from soil, water, and sediments. Various chemical and physical methods involve the use of chemicals for decontamination of soil and water, whereas physical methods such as incineration or burial are used for remediation. Bioremediation involves the use of plants (phytoremediation), microbes (microbial remediation), and animals (zooremediation), and biodegradation involves the use of microbes. Both ex situ and in situ strategies are used depending on the requirement. This chapter focuses on the most appropriate biodegradation and bioremediation strategies for pesticides.

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