Ubiquitous distribution of phosphatidylinositol phosphate synthase and archaetidylinositol phosphate synthase in Bacteria and Archaea, which contain inositol phospholipid
Department of Chemistry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555, Japan.
In Eukarya, phosphatidylinositol (PI) is biosynthesized from CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) and inositol. In Archaea and Bacteria, on the other hand, we found a novel inositol phospholipid biosynthetic pathway. The precursors, inositol 1-phosphate, CDP-archaeol (CDP-ArOH), and CDP-DAG, form archaetidylinositol phosphate (AIP) and phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) as intermediates. These intermediates are dephosphorylated to synthesize archaetidylinositol (AI) and PI. To date, the activities of the key enzymes (AIP synthase, PIP synthase) have been confirmed in only three genera (two archaeal genera, Methanothermobacter and Pyrococcus, and one bacterial genus, Mycobacterium). In the present study, we demonstrated that this novel biosynthetic pathway is universal in both Archaea and Bacteria, which contain inositol phospholipid, and elucidate the specificity of PIP synthase and AIP synthase for lipid substrates. PIP and AIP synthase activity were confirmed in all recombinant cells transformed with the respective gene constructs for four bacterial species (Streptomyces avermitilis, Propionibacterium acnes, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Rhodococcus equi) and two archaeal species (Aeropyrum pernix and Sulfolobus solfataricus). Inositol was not incorporated. CDP-ArOH was used as the substrate for PIP synthase in Bacteria, and CDP-DAG was used as the substrate for AIP synthase in Archaea, despite their fundamentally different structures. PI synthase activity was observed in two eukaryotic species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens; however, inositol 1-phosphate was not incorporated. In Eukarya, the only pathway converts free inositol and CDP-DAG directly into PI. Phylogenic analysis of PIP synthase, AIP synthase, and PI synthase revealed that they are closely related enzymes.