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Encyclopedia of Virology
Volume 1, 2021, Pages 501-518

Release of Phages From Prokaryotic Cells

Jesse Cahill, Ry Young

Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, United States.


Most bacteriophages of eubacteria exit the infected host cell by lysis. Double-strand DNA phages use multi-gene lysis (MGL) systems, encoding at least two lysis proteins: a holin to control lysis and an endolysin to degrade the cell wall. Phages with small (<10 genes) genomes encode a single protein (Single Gene Lysis; SGL) that causes autolysis. Filamentous phages are extruded non-lytically through the envelope, with the major coat protein assembling on the single-stranded gDNA from a reservoir in the cytoplasmic membrane. In infections of archaea, viral extrusion and also envelope disruption by unusual lytic pyramids are the most common strategies for progeny release.

Keywords: Antiholin, Archaea, Endolysin, Filamentous phage extrusion, Holin, Lambda, Lysis inhibition, Multi-gene lysis, Mycobacteria lysis, Phage, Pinholin, Single-gene lysis, SpaninT4, Viral release.

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