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Viruses, Bacteria and Fungi in the Built Environment
2022, 11-27

Introduction to viruses, bacteria, and fungi in the built environment

Volodymyr Ivanova, Viktor Stabnikovb

Advanced Research Laboratory, National University of Food Technologies, Kyiv, Ukraine.


An open, semiclosed, or closed indoor ecosystem is a conventional entity created by the interactions between its physical, chemical, and biological components separated by the physical boundary from the surrounding environment. Open indoor ecosystems, which exchange energy and matter with the environment through the boundary, are industrial and commercial facilities, homes, educational facilities, offices, cars, trains, and ships. Semiclosed ecosystems are the ecosystems of submarines and underwater stations, underground facilities, desert, polar, and space stations. Closed ecosystems of the built environment that have no exchange of a matter with the surrounding environment are long-term space stations. Viruses and microorganisms such as bacteria, archaea, protozoa, microscopic fungi, and algae play an essential role in all types of the built ecosystems, affecting positively or negatively human health, quality of air and water, soil fertility, properties, and durability of the construction materials in the built environment.

Keywords: Indoor environment, Bioaerosol, Bacteria, Fungi, Virus, Air pollution.

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