Interaction type of tetrabromobisphenol A and copper manipulates ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria communities in co-contaminated river sediments
Yi Li, Chenyang Fan, Linqiong Wang, Longfei Wang, Wenlong Zhang, Huanjun Zhang, Lihua Niu
Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210098, PR China.
The combined contamination of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and heavy metals in electronic waste (e-waste) recycling and disposal areas has been a serious concern owing to their environmental persistence and chronic toxicities. Ammonia oxidizers, e.g., ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play essential roles in nitrogen cycling and can serve as ideal indicators that reflect the changes in sediment health in response to environmental variables. There is currently very little information available on the combined toxic effects of BFRs and heavy metals on AOA and AOB communities. In this study, two typical e-waste pollutants, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and copper (Cu), were selected as target contaminants to investigate the individual and combined effects of both pollutants on AOA and AOB communities in river sediments. Respective treatments of TBBPA (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg wet weight), Cu (100 mg/kg wet weight) and their combined treatments (weight ratios of 1:100, 1:10, and 1:5) were performed in laboratory experiments. High-throughput sequencing was applied to explore the response of ammonia oxidizers to TBBPA and Cu. The interaction types of TBBPA and Cu were calculated by the directional classification system to reveal the individual and combined toxicities of both contaminants to the ammonia oxidizers. On days 15 and 30, the dominant interaction type of TBBPA and Cu was synergistic (62.50%), and the combined contamination exacted selective pressure and inhibition on the AOB and AOA communities. On days 45 and 90, the interaction type shifted to be antagonistic (83.33%), with both the AOB and AOA communities gradually reaching stable population equilibria. The alteration of the interaction type is attributed to the elevated TBBPA/Cu tolerance as the incubation time increased. This study disclosed the interaction types of TBBPA and Cu in contaminated river sediments, and revealed that the combined effect could potentially manipulate AOB and AOA communities.
Keywords: Tetrabromobisphenol A, CopperAmmonia-oxidizing microorganisms, Combined contamination, Interaction type.