Effects of myclobutanil on soil microbial biomass, respiration, and soil nitrogen transformations
Chao Ju, Jun Xu, Xiaohu Wu, Fengshou Dong, Xingang Liu, Yongquan Zheng
State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
A 3-month-long experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of different concentrations of myclobutanil (0.4 mg kg-1 soil [T1]; 1.2 mg kg-1 soil [T3]; and 4 mg kg-1 soil [T10]) on soil microbial biomass, respiration, and soil nitrogen transformations using two typical agricultural soils (Henan fluvo-aquic soil and Shanxi cinnamon soil). Soil was sampled after 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days of incubation to determine myclobutanil concentration and microbial parameters: soil basal respiration (RB), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), NO-3–NNO-3–N and NH+4–NNH+4–N concentrations, and gene abundance of total bacteria, N2-fixing bacteria, fungi, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The half-lives of the different doses of myclobutanil varied from 20.3 to 69.3 d in the Henan soil and from 99 to 138.6 d in the Shanxi soil. In the Henan soil, the three treatments caused different degrees of short-term inhibition of RB and MBC, NH+4–NNH+4–N, and gene abundance of total bacteria, fungi, N2-fixing bacteria, AOA, and AOB, with the exception of a brief increase in NO-3–NNO-3–N content during the T10 treatment. The MBN (immobilized nitrogen) was not affected. In the Shanxi soil, MBC, the populations of total bacteria, fungi, and N2-fixing bacteria, and NH+4–NNH+4–N concentration were not significantly affected by myclobutanil. The RB and MBN were decreased transitorily in the T10 treatment. The NO-3–NNO-3–N concentrations and the abundance of both AOA and AOB were erratically stimulated by myclobutanil. Regardless of whether stimulation or suppression occurred, the effects of myclobutanil on the two soil types were short term. In summary, myclobutanil had no long-term negative effects on the soil microbial biomass, respiration, and soil nitrogen transformations in the two types of soil, even at 10-fold the recommended dosage.
Keywords: Myclobutanil; Soil microbial biomass; Soil respiration; Soil nitrogen transformations; Ammonia-oxidizing archaea; Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.